Stingrays are cartilaginous fish related to sharks. These are found in warmer waters in temperate and tropical and subtropical areas. In the north they can be found in southern Scandinavia. They are called sea cats, because their character resembles that of regular cats, they have a needle or, better, a venom bone.
The flat body allows them to hide effectively in the aquatic environment. He only moves a little to lift a sandy bed from the ground, then quickly sticks to the ground, letting the sand fall and cover it completely.
Only the eyes and the tail stay out of sight. Because eyes are above it can not see the prey, they use the smell and the similar recipients to the sharks.
Stingray feed on mollusks, crustaceans that remove them from sand and small fish.
Some species have strong jaws that allow them to break or crush bone carcasses while other species have jaws adapted for sucking. They usually prefer to feed in areas with coral reefs where they divide the territory with sharks.
Their shape varies from rectangular to rounded, and their body is stained or marbled.
There are more than 80 species of large stingray, their length ranging from 1.5 to 4m, and the width from 30cm to 4m. Some of them are freshwater, but most are salty water.
Body weight is from 750g to 340kg. The venomous spikes are set on their long tail that resembles a whip.
The length of the spikes differs, with some species reaching the length of 40cm. These teeth show a ventral venture inside, and inside there is a tissue responsible for venom production.
The stingray does not attack man though it is an aggressive animal. To avoid and frighten these animals in less deep areas, it is enough to throw stones in the water before entering that area.
The needle is not very dangerous unless it reaches a vital area (as was the case with Steve Irwin when he was hit by a big stingray during a documentary in the heart). Following a possible lesion you may have local traumas, muscle cramps due to venom, possible infection and obvious pain.
In some species, the needle usually breaks in the wound and requires surgical removal to remove it.
The mating season begins in the winter.
When the male curves a female, she closely follows her biting from her pectoral disk, then mates.
The stingray breeds 5 to 13 live babies.
It develops the embryos inside without the placenta, and after birth it secretes the uterine milk.