- Areal: America
- Habitat: Mountain regions
- Edge: Carnivorous
- Size: 1.1m – 2m
- Weight: 67kg – 105kg
- Speed: 45kph (30mph)
- Colors: Brown, red, yellow, gray
- Reproduction: 4 babies
- Predators: Bears, wolves
- He lives: solitary
- Average age: 10 to 15 years
- Features: The back legs are longer than the front legs
Puma, the scientific name Puma, is also known as the mountain lion, mountain cat, or panther, depending on the region.
It is a mammal that is part of the native Felidae family in America. This solitary cat covers the largest terrestrial area in the western hemisphere, dating from Yukon, Canada to South America in the Andes.
It is the second “cat” after the jaguar as the weight of the western hemisphere. Puma is more genetically similar to small felines, such as cats, than animals of similar size like lions. As a known predator, he prefers ambush tactics.
Due to the excessive hunting of American colonists and human development, the habitat of the mountain lion has diminished, and with it the animal population.
Since the 20th century, the population of the puma has been isolated in some places in North America.
Due to the large surface that the puma has occupied in the past, the puma is known under most names. He owns the record with the most names, with over 40 names of the animal being known.
The Felidae family is believed to be native to Asia about 11 million years ago.
Mountain Lion’s Food
Puma is a successful predator, eating anything that can catch from insects to animals with hooves over 500kg. Like all cats, it is a meat-loving, which means that it basically feeds flesh to survive.
The most commonly sought and hunted species are deer, especially in North America, deer, elk, horses, domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and others. He condemned boars and army.
A study in America showed that hoof animals account for 99% of the base meal. In Europe, smaller mammals, including large rodents such as capibara, are preferred.
Hoof animals represent 40% of the food, the rest of the percentages being occupied by mice, hedgehogs, field rabbits, birds, reptiles, and others.
Although they can make fast sprinters, pumas prefer surprise to the ambush. They hide through trees or bushes from where they jump to the front of the animal, and a choking bite in the neck area makes them worth the dinner.
Sometimes it breaks the throats of some of the small animals they hunt because of strong bite and impulse. Usually they kill an animal every two weeks, but when they have babies, especially when they are older, reaching maturity at the age of 15 months, the puma has to hunt every three days.
Usually after killing the prey it takes her to a place known and covers her with leaves, branches, etc. to consume it for several days.
It is generally known that the puma consumes only the prey killed, but according to a study in California where deer carcasses have been left, they have been consumed by the puma, probably because they prefer deer.
Mountain Lion’s Aspect
Puma is a strong and agile animal. It is the fourth largest animal in size among cats. Adults have 60 to 90 cm height at the shoulders.
The males reach 2.5m lengths from the nose to the tip of the tail, and the females slightly over 2m. Males weighing between 60 and 100 kg, and females between 30 and 70 kg.
The smallest puma, in size, can be found at the equator, and the largest in the poles. The largest puma is said to have weighed 136kg. She was shot in the Arizona.
The head is round and the ears are straight. Strong neck and jaw gives him the ability to bite and grab bigger prey. It has retractable claw clips at the front and 4 at the rear.
Although it is large, it is not as muscular and powerful as the jaguar. Despite its fairly large size, it is not classified as a big cat.
He can not blow like the lion because he does not have a larynx, the communication is minimal in the species, the sounds can be heard in the relationship mother-chicken, the rest of the puma is a silent feline.
Puma grew up, spit, drooping, and had other activities comparable to those of the domestic cat. They are known for their screams, screams that are often misinterpreted and that refer to some of their common names.
The coat has a uniform color, hence the Latin name concolor, puma concolor. Color can vary a lot even between siblings. The usually yellow-red coat can vary in gray-silver, reddish, including the jaws, chin and neck.
The pups are born with blue eyes, with spots and color rings on the tails. The elbows are large, the larger ones proportionally larger, allowing the cats to make big jumps and short sprints.
A jump of 5.4m is reported vertically.
Horizontal puma has the ability to make jumps between 6 and 12m. Can run at speeds of 55-75km / h, but short distances. It is adapted for short sprints, not for tracking.
As any cat tends to climb trees to get rid of enemies, one can not say he loves water but can swim as needed.
Mountain Lion’s Behavior
As almost all the Puma cats are a solitary animals, only mothers and chicks live in groups and adults during mating. The most active period of the mountain lion is at dawn and on the inserted.
The territory occupied by the Puma estimated by Canadian Geographic is between 150 and 1,000 square km by males and half occupied by females, while other studies show that a puma occupies only 25 km to 1300 sq km of males.
In the united states, 775 sq km occupied by the puma were reported.
Mountain Lion’s Reproduction
Mountain Lion females reach sexual maturity from the age of 18 months to 3 years. They usually mate every 1-3 years. Females go into heat for 8 days.
The gestation period is approximately 91 days. Females are sometimes reported as monogam, but this is uncertain, polygamy is more common.
In captivity the reproduction rate is lower due to stress. Only females deal with chickens education. They struggle with invisibility to protect the little ones, being often seen struggling with animals much larger than usual, like grizzly bears.
Give birth to 1-6 babies, usually 2 or 3 in places away from other animals such as larger caves or lawns. Cubs are born blind and are completely addicted to their mother at first. They are weaned at the age of three months and start hunting with their mother.
After six months they start hunting small animals on their own. At birth they have stains that help them camouflage their enemies and as they grow they disappear. Young adults begin to settle on their own territory at the age of two, males usually separate from the family earlier.
The average life expectancy in the wild is 9-13 years. A female at least 18 years old was hunted in Vancouver.
In captivity the pumas live for 20 years.