- Areal: Africa
- Habitat: Savannah and open areas
- Edge: Carnivorous
- Size: 1.4 – 2.5 m
- Weight: 120 – 250 kg
- Speed: 56 km / h (35 mph)
- Colors: Brown, golden, blond, white
- Reproduction: 3 puppies
- Predators: the man
- He lives in the pack
- Average age: 8 to 15 years
The lion (Panthera leo), also known as the king of animals, is part of the Carnivora order, the Felidae family.
Although the magnificent lion was, by now, the most widespread land mammal for about 10,000 years ago, the Asian lion is now extinct, and the African lion is a vulnerable species.
Lions are a symbol that often appears in the heraldry of royal families and cavalry. They even appear in China’s art, although they have never lived there.
No other animal has received more attention in art and literature. The Bible is remembered 130 times. In the art of stone age, especially in cave paintings, drawings of lei are frequently found.
The lions are predominantly carnivorous predators, very powerful, who hunt large mammals, including their favorites: impalp antelope, zebras, buffaloes, wild boars, etc. Lion females usually hunt in groups, applying the sneeze strategy to the victims. Most often, some females are strumming the herd from several points, and the next person will suddenly and violently attack the nearest individual.
The lions’ tilts are very sharp and have impressive dimensions (up to 8cm in length), the prey is most often killed by strangulation.
A lion can eat at one meal even 30kg of meat. Small-sized jellyfish are eaten on the spot, and large ones are often thrown into the group.
Leo is the second largest feline, after the tiger. The color of his coat varies from pale yellow to brown-ocher or even reddish. The fur on the abdomen is lighter, and the hair on the tip of the tail is black. The puppies have brown spots on the fur, similar to those of the leopards. There are also white lilies, the light color of their fur due to a recessive gene.
Lion’s dimensions may vary depending on the area where they live, but on average, females weigh 120-180kg, and males 150-230kg.
Shoulder height is about 98cm for females and 120cm for males. The length of the body (including the head) in females varies between 140 and 175cm, and in males between 170 and 250cm.
The lion’s sexual dimorphism is very obvious: the males are the only ones that have a thigh around the neck and chest. Coama varies both in terms of color and size, and its characteristics are influenced by the degree of sexual maturity, climate, genetic baggage of the specimen, and testosterone secretion.
Thus, a healthy lion has a rich and dark coat. Although there have been cases of females who have lived for 20 years, lions rarely exceed 8 years. In captivity, however, they can get to live for over 20 years.
Lions are the only felines whose sexual dimorphism is obviously visual.
The lion is the only feline that has the tip of the tail covered with a tufted hair. The role of this smoke is still unknown. He is absent at birth and begins to develop only around the age of 5 months.
The lion male is the only feline that has a chin. Of the cats, the lion has the strongest rag.
Although the king is called the jungle king, the lion prefers savannah and vast plains, but can also be found in shrubs and forests. The Acacia trees scattered through the savannah allow the lions to retreat to the shade. Male lions spend much of their time resting being idle 20 hours a day, sometimes even 24. They can sleep for an entire day, and after waking they eat a large amount of food.
All the while the females do the whole thing, they hunt. From the point of view of social organization, they can be divided into two categories: residents and nomads.
Lions are very territorial and both male and female will ferrarly defend their territory. The females in the group are the ones who usually hunt the males patrolling the territory of the group.
Communication within a group of lions is varied, including vocalizations (muffins, rashes, tears, kisses, wheezing, etc.), but also touches, licks, friction of parts of the body or body postures.
The lion’s ragout is very strong and can be heard from a distance of 8 km, being emitted especially at night and having the role of indicating the presence of the animal in a particular region.
Lionesses reach their sexual maturity around the age of 3-4 years. Lions do not have a specific mating period and can reproduce several times a year. Females can mate with more males, and during the mating season (which may take a few days), a couple can replicate 20-40 times, leaving aside any other activity (including feeding).
The gestation period lasts about 110 days, at the end of which the female gives birth to 1-4 puppies, blind and almost totally helpless. The female nests a nest in an isolated and protected area, away from the rest of the group, and the chickens are introduced into the group only at the age of 6 weeks. The puppies are weaned at the age of 6-7 months.
Often, females in a group synchronize their periods of estrus so that they all give birth to the chickens at about the same time. Thus, they will take care of chickens together and they will have more chances of survival.
Lion populations are currently declining rapidly, the cause of this phenomenon not being fully understood. However, it seems that the most important factor is man and his actions, which result in the decrease of species habitats.
Authorities have developed various programs to protect this extraordinary animal, focusing especially on the African species. Reproduction is attempted in captivity to reintroduce the species into its original habitats. A serious problem met by researchers is to ensure the genetic diversity of captive lion populations.
The same problem, however, is also in freedom, as the populations of West African lions are isolated from the populations of Central Africa, and so they can not refresh genes.