Ants have been living on Earth for more than 100 million years, being considered the species that evolved and best adapted to the conditions that occurred over time in Earth’s evolution.
More than 20,000 species are discovered, most commonly known as black and red, as well as white ants, or termites. They are relatives of bees and wasps, proof being the needle-shaped organ with venom from the top of the abdomen.
Socratic beings, ants live in large groups, called colonies, where the organization of work is well established. Not in vain are considered – as in the frog Creepers and Ant – the most harrowing insects.
Generally, ants are insectivores, but they also feed on plants, and some species cultivate their own food, growing plant lice or cultivating mushrooms to produce a nutritional diet for the colony.
Thus, several European ant species care for lice, which they grind, eating them with their antennae to encourage the production of extrafloral honey, their source of food. Although rich in sugars, honey generally has few proteins.
To compensate for this lack, a species of Asian anthurium worms on the old leaves, the young, rich in protein, making sure that the resulting honey has a high protein level.
South American Leaf Ants carry the cut leaves and other plant parts in the colony. When they reach the nest ants harvest in one of the underground chambers.
Smaller ants smoothen the leaves, and even smaller ones chew and knead them, making cocoons, which scatters them through the rooms. These cocoons represent the ideal growing environment for a fungus-like bred fungus.
The fungus digests the cellulose and the proteins in the plant matter, producing the nutrients needed for the ants. The little ants of the colony invade the garden of other intruding mushrooms. Mushrooms with extrafloral honey feed about. 5 million colony individuals.
Like any insect, the ant‘s body consists of three parts: the head, the chest, and the abdomen. The six legs, which start from the chest, are covered with fine hair, with which the ant cleans the two antennae at the top of the head.
Antennas are very important organs for touching, smelling or hearing and replacing the functions of the eyes, many and gathered in one place, which are little developed. Also, the antennas use their ants to communicate by touching with the other in the colony.
Apart from the eyes and the antennas, the head ends with a kind of jaws, like pliers, with which the ant defends the enemy. The same kind of pliers, more developed and sharper, have at each leg the ants-soldiers, those who guard the mussels.
The middle part of the body, the thorax, is the section where the heart is found, like a long tube, which pumps a kind of colorless blood throughout the body. Interestingly, this process is not done through blood vessels (as in other animals and humans).
The fetus has no lungs, the breath being made through the pores of the membrane covering the whole insect’s body.
The life of a colony depends directly on the queen’s life. When it dies, the mushroom will not last for more than a few months, because the queen is rarely replaced by another ant. Thus, without the queen, the ants leave the muscles, and they will have the same fate as their leader.
The role of each inhabitant of an ant colony is well established and respected within the group. Thus, the colony is led by a single ant, anthill queen, whose sole task is to make eggs, always neat and defended by all other ants. It is also she who at first formed the colony.
But how does it actually arise and form a new family of ants? During the nuptial flight, the female mates with a male ant, then down to earth, and after a while her wings fall, she is unable to fly again. Here begins searching for a shelter (under a stone or in a woody hollow in the case of termites) or digging an underground tunnel.
From this main tunnel, which can also be 5 meters deep, the so-called underground rooms are formed, linked by other smaller tunnels. These rooms will have different uses, as colony grows like ants: storage of food, hibernation or egg laying.
Most of the other ants in the mussels are laborers, the food collected by them being divided “brothers” among all the members of the colony. Carefully preserving eggs also within the powers of ants working, they delete rubbing their body to the ground does not settle on them.
Eggs are transformed into larvae (the egg stage is dressed in a sort of oval shell called Cocoon) in the future ants will come.