Sea snakes are venomous animals that populate almost all marine environments. Although they have evolved from terrestrial ancestors and have completely adapted to marine life, most can no longer move on land.
The exception is the Laticauda genus, which has retained the ability to “walk” on land, given limited distances. They can be seen in the warm waters stretching from the coast of the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
They all adapted their tail for swimming. Sometimes they can be confused with the electric pattern. Unlike fish, they do not have gills and have to come regularly to the surface of the water to breathe. Among the sea snakes are snakes that have one of the strongest venom in the world.
Some are relatively social and only bite when challenged, but others are more aggressive.
Currently, 17 genera of sea snakes are described, comprising 62 species. Sea snakes are confined to the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. There are no sea snakes in the Atlantic Ocean.
Sea Snake’s Food
Most species of sea snakes feed on fish, especially eels. The prey after the bite dies within seconds.
One species feeds on molluscs and crustaceans, such as shrimps, while other species prefer to eat fish fish, which is unusual for venomous snakes.
Other species that have a small head and a thin neck can slip through the corals after small eels. One individual assumed in 1974 that snakes would also feed on bait from fishing lines (rods, etc.).
Sea Snake’s Features
Adults of most species reach lengths of 120 – 150 cm. The longest sea snake has a length of 3m. Their eyes are relatively small and in some species the nostrils are located dorsally.
The head does not differ significantly from the terrestrial snakes, and the tooth is primitive: 18 small teeth can be found behind the jaw.
Most species of sea snake are completely aquatic and have adapted to their environment in many ways. The most obvious feature is the large tail adapted and adapted to swimming, in some species the organs are compressed laterally.
Because a snake has a stronger olfactory function in water than on the tongue, the tongue is smaller because it is used less. The nostrils close with a spongy tissue to keep water out of the body.
Most aquatic snakes can breathe through the skin, which is unusual for them because their skin is thick and scaly, but experiments have shown that sea snakes take 20% of their oxygen through the skin.
This allows them to encode magnets at greater depths or for longer periods.
Like their cousins in the family Elapidae, most sea snakes are particularly venomous, but when the fly does not inject much venom, the symptoms appear to be nonexistent.
Platurus Pelamis has a stronger venom than all snakes in Costa Rica and yet there have been few human deaths. However, snakes should be handled with care.
Their bites are generally painless and can not be seen when they make contact. There is a chance that the animal’s teeth will remain in the wound.
Symptoms may occur within 30 minutes to several hours after the bite. These include generalized pain, rigidity, muscle sensitivity, headache, thirst, sweating, vomiting, depending on the body.
Paralysis of the muscles involved in swallowing or breathing can be fatal. After 3-8 hours myoglobin can affect the muscles in some way and plasma can appear in the blood, and the urine may be dark red, brown, black or color. After 6-12h, severe hyperkalemia can lead to cardiac arrest.
Sea Snake’s Reproduction
Except for one genus all species are oviviparous, the baby snakes are born alive in the water in which they live.
In some species the little ones have impressive lengths up to half the length of the mother.
The only exception is the genus Laticauda, which is oviparous, where all five species lay eggs.