Several species of the Scarabaeidae family are known under this name. The most important species in Central and Eastern Europe are the beetle and the black beetle.
Beetles are spread all over Europe. They can be found on various hardwood species such as maple, oak, beech, birch, squirrel, poplar, walnut, chestnut, fruit trees, as well as conifers such as larch and duglas green.
Besides these, the beetles also attack different herbs, cucumbers, beets and salads.
Adult beetle feeds on the leaves of the host trees. In the case of a mass invasion, the tree can be completely blunted.
Generally, the plant leaves are replaced by new ones in June.
But the fact that the beetle larvae feed on the roots of plants can be so damaging that the plants become very weak, and a stronger storm can be plucked from the roots.
It has a length of 20-30 mm; head, neck and back of the body, as well as the lower part are black; The wings (elite) are brown and have some well-formed longitudinal elevations.
On the head is inserted a pair of bent antennae, which in males presents at the end 7 long fringes, like foliage; female antennae have only 6 similar fringe, but somewhat shorter; larvae reach up to 65 mm in length; are whitish, yellow and rounded in the abdominal area (the specific shape of the carabus larvae); they have 3 pairs of legs that start from the chest area and their head is brown and clearly delimited by the rest of the body.
The natural predators of the beetle are: bats, owls, crows, sparrows, bark beetles, hedgehogs, chitcans, parasitic wasps, Tachinidae flies, etc. The soil should be regularly and well watered. Plant layers should be covered with a large piece of plastic or canvas throughout the beetle flight period.
Dandelions are planted because they are preferred as beetle feed. If they have enough dandelions to feed, the other plants are ignored. If the garlic boil is used, the beetle can be mutilated.
The flying period of the beetle takes place in April and May, and then they fly in the afternoon and put it on. After a feeding period the female beetle deposits about 10-30 round and yellow eggs, placed in piles, at 5-25 cm deep in the ground.
Then the female flies back to the woods, fruit orchards or gardens to feed. After this feeding phase, she still places another row of eggs, but in a smaller number than the first time. She puts about 20 eggs at this stage. After a third feeding phase, the female submits a third row of eggs in even smaller amount.
After 4-6 weeks, the embryonic evolution ends and the larvae hatch. They need 3-5 years to make stern transformation, and then metamorphosis in adult beetle.
Larvae feed on humus and plant roots. In the last stage of the larva, a stern transformation takes place in the summer, and the young beetle hatches at the end of the summer. It first eats, then comes out of the ground the following spring.
Related and similar species from the Scarabaeidae family: marbled beetle, garden beetle, June beetle, and golden caraway.